Strategic Management: Formulation and Implementation

Corporate-level Strategies Options

  1. GROWTH STRATEGIES
    1. Concentration
      1. Market development
      2. Product Development
      3. Horizontal Integration
    2. Vertical Integration
      1. Backward integration
      2. Forward integration
      3. Diversification
    3. Diversification
      1. Concentric
      2. Conglomerate
    4. Implementation of Growth Strategies
      1. Internal growth
      2. Acquisition
      3. Mergers
      4. Alliances
  2. STABILITY STRATEGY
  3. ENDGAME STRATEGIES
  4. DEFENSIVE STRATEGIES
    1. Turnaround
    2. Divestment
    3. Liquidation
    4. Bankruptcy
    5. Captive
  5. COMBINATION STRATEGIES

Corporate Growth Strategies

Growth strategies are extremely popular because most executives tend to equate growth with success. Howevere, in order for an organization to grow, it must generate surplus. This surplus can be used in many ways. For example, it can be used to augment worker and management wages, salaries, and bonuses or held in income-generating reserve. Surplus can also be distributed in dividends to stockholders, or it could be used to reduce future prices of goods or services. Finally, surplus can be used for either internal or external growth.

Internal growth may take place through increasing sales, by introducing new products and services while retaining the old. Horizontal internal growth involves creating new companies that operate in the same business as the original firm, in related businesses, or in unrelated businesses. Vertical internal growth refers to creating businesses within the firm's vertical channel of distribution and takes the form of supplier-customer relationships.

External growth can be accomplished through merger or acquisition, joint venture, and vertical integration. Firms may select a growth strategy; this growth can refer to any of the following:

In the following sections, several growth strategy options are described.